Methods of measurement

Малыхин Анатолий Витальевич
The appearance of any fundamentally new method always means the empowerment of researchers and the creation of prerequisites for the lighting problems in a new way.

The method of non-invasive determination of blood formula and more than a hundred regulatory parameters of human activity for 3-10 minutes, implemented in hardware-software complex undoubtedly opens horizons for researchers.

The method is based on the idea of ​​the relationship between man and environment, on the impact of external factors (atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, exogenous effects of mental, chemical, physical) and information value of the temperature of certain points of the body in discovering the biochemical and biophysical mechanisms regulating homeostasis and rheological blood properties. The program of hardware and software is built taking into account the difficulties encountered in the study of homeostasis (Assessment of hemodynamic parameters, blood circulation internal organs, the role of the central and peripheral mechanisms in the regulation of metabolism and others.).

Analysis of published data, its own methods of research, data comparison tool, biochemical, clinical methods shows that the system maintain homeostasis of the body, ie, the constancy of the internal environment, extremely complex in its mechanisms and is based on the almost infinite variety of its compensatory-adaptive reactions. They are studied from different angles - the physiological, biochemical, pathophysiological, immunological, genetic, morphological, and others. However, the development of the relationship of morphological and metabolic homeostasis regulation level until recently lagged behind other regulatory aspects of the study. The representations of the structural bases of the compensatory-adaptive reactions proceeded mainly from the fact disparate data and theoretical generalizations which we have inherited from the end of the last century. As a result, the vast literature of the XIX and early XX century, the problem of adaptation to environmental conditions covered unilaterally, mainly or even exclusively from the functional positions, and generally the body's ability to adapt to external influences seemed devoid of material basis, as if dangling in the air.

According to our development, the livelihoods of a particular tissue (cells) is under the constant supervision of a double, debilitating and enhances its function under the influence of energy transformation in the circulatory system and the executive bodies (entropy and enthalpy energy) sootnoshe¬nie which determines the level of functional activity of tissue at any given moment. The ratio of enthalpy and entropy is accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes that accelerate synthetic processes, and enzymes that catalyze decomposition processes. These processes are interconnected with the synthesis and degradation of hormones that suppress the mitotic activity (adrenaline, cortisone) and stimulating it (thyroxine, estrogen). The result of this multi-level process is a state of coagulation and anticoagulation systems of blood - thrombin-plasmin system (TPS), has an antagonistic effect on the function of organs, altering blood flow in them, determining the ratio of hypertensive and hypotensive effects in the regulation of blood pressure by changing the regulation of water metabolism.

In biology and medicine, it is difficult to find an industry where everything was known to, and the researcher did not rise to more and more problems. In this respect, the study of regulation of vegetative homeostasis, depending on the impacts of the environment on the body and the relationship of these effects on the mechanisms of oxygen transport and arising from this relationship ergotrofotropnoy function of the autonomic nervous system are no exception and are interrelated with the process of regulatory biochemical enzymatic reactions. Last occur under the influence of the coordinating role of nonspecific systems of limbic-reticular complex (LRC). This LRC actively involved in temperature regulation and redistribution of water environments of the body, including the kidney pituitary-adrenal system by changing the activity of the peripheral and central offices adrenomedullyarnoy sympathetic-pituitary-adrenocortical and Systems (SAS and SAS).

SAS and SAS system self-regulated by converting energy enthalpic and entropic processes. This system of self-regulation and SAS SAS four are considered major - is genetic, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, combined in a single functional system by adapting the circulation reaches a certain activity of RTD.

It is established that it is a single structural and functional enzyme system, which operates in all major biological media (CBOs) and is associated with circulation, a change in the parameters of which are reflected in terms of the temperature of the active points of the body (the area of ​​the left and right carotid artery, the area of ​​the axillary artery on the left and Right, as well as the abdominal region - the confluence of the descending aorta, inferior vena cava and the main lymphatic duct). According to the dynamics of the temperature indicators of stabilization time, and lateralization can indirectly judge the biochemical regulatory processes in the body, including in the cytoplasm of different cells of the body, in the intermediate connective tissue (PST) in the blood, where it operates two internally contradictory opposite process - biological coagulation (cyto-histo-hemocoagulation) and biological regeneration. TPS - a very complex enzyme system that is clinically manifested in the form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and naturally arises in a variety of diseases. There is evidence that there is a pathological process in which there would be this syndrome.

DIC is considered the main cause of dyscirculatory hypoxia, which, in turn, is considered to be the main link in the pathogenesis of organ damage in virtually all diseases, including nerve.

In our laboratory activity SCC was studied on the basis of computed tomography data on the state of the brain, its density, the size of the third ventricle, the size of cerebro-ventricular indexes and their relationship with the concentration indices of proteins, lipids, cholesterol, carbohydrate metabolism, depending on the temperature readings above-mentioned points, the cells of peripheral blood and changes in the activity of RTD.

In the mid 70-ies of the last century, we are using biochemical and morphological studies using the method of polarography, we found that under the conditions of circulatory disorders in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke coagulation process takes place in all the OBS and accompanied by a decrease in oxygen consumption and a decrease in cerebral blood flow. In the 90s, we clarified the pathogenesis of these changes and the role of the temperature regulation mechanisms of these processes (most often develops when the engine temperature indicators of active points of the skin below the 1550S and 1790S above.). These intervals of temperature indicators of active points and a low incidence of abdominal region to 280C or less naturally arise considerable damage to the structure and function of the brain.

Based on the comparison of the data of computed tomography and biochemical studies of these changes affect the biophysical structure of the brain (the size of the third ventricle and cerebro-ventricular indices), the regulation of water and electrolyte metabolism, mucoid swelling and fibrinous transformation disseminated mikrotrombozov.

Based on the analysis results, we concluded that the two are well known in the literature enzyme systems - coagulation (system thrombin) and the fibrinolytic (system plasmin) actually are subsystems or levers more complex regulatory enzyme system that functions in all major biological medium Depending on the blood circulation, which is interconnected with the dynamics of temperature hotspots, as well as the time of their stabilization, biochemical mechanisms that determine the enzymatic activity of TPS transformation.

These studies found that the biological role of the SCC is to achieve two fundamental, opposing, internally contradictory processes of energy conversion:

- Chemical bonds decay of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which subsystem performs thrombin, thus wasting energy;

- The chemical synthesis of relations, which carries subsystem plasmin.

It was found that these systems change their activity depending on changes in the average rate of oxygen delivery to the tissues, which is linked to changes in oxygen solubility coefficient in liquid media, and depend on the temperature of the active points of the skin.

Based on our results we substantiated evidence that the activity of the SCC is the basis of vegetative homeostatic regulatory mechanism. At its core, it determines the number of functioning capillaries per unit area. TPS activity varies depending on the flow rate of the internal organs due to cardiac function of heat to form a conjugate.

According to information received, the relationship of heat and work carried out by the difference of energy used in the synthesis, or the collapse of relations of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, determined by the process of phase transition of matter from gaseous to liquid and gelled.

The causes and mechanisms of these phase transitions depend on the average oxygen delivery rate, which determines the change in mass transport of particles, which in turn determines the dynamics of temperature indicators of active points studied.

Phase transitions determine changes in the structure of biological molecules of different proteins colloids by reacting fibrinogen and two forms of actin. G-Actin - globular form (monomer) and F-Actin - fibrillar form (polymer). They are functional analogues of fibrinogen and fibrin, which pass from one form to another, depending on changes in the average rate of oxygen delivery to the cell.

Enzymes subsystems TPS - thrombin and plasmin, which formed as a result of changes in blood circulation LRC, cardiopulmonary system and gastrointestinal tract and cause Activity kalikrein-kinin system, which determines the changes in the structure and function of proteins under the scheme: fibrinogen> fibrin> fibrin degradation products and actin on the principle of polymerization (formation of F-actin with the prevalence trombonogeneza interconnected with reduced blood flow of gastrointestinal tract) - depolymerization (formation of G-Actin with the prevalence plazmonogeneza interconnected with an increase in blood flow). Depending on changes in the speed of delivery of oxygen to a cell changes in blood circulation occur, accompanied by changes in temperature indicators of active points, as well as time to stabilize them. This leads to changes in the activity of enzymes and the physical state of matter by type: sol - gel, liquid - gas, determining the level of metabolism in biological media at all levels of their organization - molecular, subcellular, cellular, organ.

Produced work is linked to the dynamics of temperature indicators of active points and is a measure of the energy that provides the course of biochemical processes redox subsystem plasmin. This process is accompanied by adaptive changes in the structure and function of their injuries during hypoxic genesis. Thus, the biological homeostatic mechanisms include not only changes in the state of aggregation of colloids as resulting activity SCC change the speed tissue oxygen delivery and subsequent regenerative changes in the structure and function of basic biological environments at all levels of the organization, both in normal conditions (physiological functions of the SCC) and in pathology.

Based on the positions of the modern theory of systems, this is a temporary abnormal structural and functional system. It is formed of a number of structural components of the subsystems (the blood cell elements, native blood and plasma, the blood vessel walls, platelets, and plasma factors TPV kalikrein-kinin and other biochemical enzymatic systems) determining the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin and plasminogen to plasmin. Leaving this transformation is accompanied by formation of water and CO 2, the oxidized and reduced forms of nitrogen and stabilization of temperature characteristics of the five active points studied.

These mechanisms of water and plasma per kilogram under the control of nonspecific brain systems that continually optimize these processes via activation of enzymatic factors that can block thrombogenesis or plazmogenez at any stage of their development, including non-specific mechanisms of regulation - the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal -pochechnuyu system and respiratory system.

This structural and metabolic ratio is defined by the unity of subsystems of TPS and is, inter alia, that any change in the average rate of oxygen delivery to the tissues causes increased thrombogenesis, which always pulls the changes in blood circulation internal organs, quality of breathing and increased plazmogeneza and vice versa - strengthening plazmogeneza always determines the gain of thrombogenesis. Interaction of the subsystems is to ensure that they determine the opposite inherently changes the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs and systems of the body, accompanied by changes in hydrocarbon and nitrogen-containing components of the biochemical reactions that are always accompanied by a redistribution of water environments of the body.

Conventionally, autonomic homeostatic regulatory mechanisms can be divided into three steps:

1. System gaseous phase reaction components (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen).

2. Stage thermoregulation and activity of thrombogenesis (thrombin) or the regulation of the speed of circulation.

Step 3. coagulation changes the structure and biological activity of proteins OBS (fibrin formation in the blood and in the FCS, the cells actin polymerization, i.e. transition G-actin in F-actin, denaturation of other proteins).

Phase transitions of proteins determine the speed and capacity of myocardial contraction and peristalsis of the internal organs, which in turn alter the course of biochemical transformations of the structure and function of proteins. These biochemical conversion always accompanied by quantitative changes in mineral-corticoids and gluco-corticoids, which determine water exchange and affect the colloid oncotic pressure and the jelly-like state of the cytoplasm and intercellular fluid in all the OBS. The degree of enzymatic changes, hemodynamic and metabolic syndrome is defined by the hematopoietic system and the cells of peripheral blood. Quantitative changes of structural and kinetic elements of the body's blood (peripheral blood) in different periods of development are accompanied by corresponding changes in the level of blood, blood circulation and the functional activity of organs and systems, interrelated with changes in the adaptive-compensatory (metabolic) of the organism.